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裴钰的旅游与文化思考

旅游和文化产业,产业与政策分析。文化旅游,文化观察,旅游地产。

 
 
 

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感恩地回答亲爱的网友  

2009-08-04 19:28:52|  分类: 明朝那些曲 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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前两日,我暂时关闭了这里的博客,纷纷有朋友用各种方式询问我,希望我重开这里的博客。我个人的专栏和写作任务很重,并且,还有工作,实在难以分出精力来打理博客。说心里话,非常感谢各个博客的编辑,对我的理解和支持。

我的新书《Songs of the Ming Dynasty》,中文名字叫《明朝那些曲》已经在各地书店、网店上市,一下子又让我忙了很多。08年年底,出了《莎士比亚眼里的林黛玉》,09年8月,又出了《明朝那些曲》,我不说自己的勤奋、执着,只是讲这样大的写作强度,也的确需要调整一下节奏。

我感谢亲爱的网友对我的关注和支持,我同意胡适那句话:多研究些问题,少谈些主义,搞当代中国文化重建的人不是少数,而我是一个又一个问题去做,我从“文化遗产”的角度,去反思明曲,去发现明曲,我相信自己的努力,会打开中国现代人文主义的一个新的视野。所以,我的写作强度很大。这次,这本 Songs of the Ming Dynasty,写得就很苦。

前天,去北京清华南门的万圣书店逛,发现了我的这本明曲书,这本书既登陆喧嚣的商业大书场,又走进了宁静的小众书店,我很喜欢这种将商业畅销和人文思考“打通”的感觉。先把该书的中英文版前言,放到这里,和亲爱的网友一起分享。

 

答亲爱的网友 - 裴钰 -

英文版书名:Songs of the Ming Dynasty

中文版书名:《明朝那些曲》  

 

前言:自序

很多人都对我的这本书充满了惊讶、惊奇和惊叹,我想可能大致在这三个方面,第一,“明曲是什么?”,很多人对唐诗宋词、明清小说耳熟能详,但是,对明曲极其陌生;第二,“明曲好在哪里?”,很多人对明曲的艺术鉴赏价值并不理解;第三,我们为什么要重视明曲的鉴赏?明曲在现今普通人的生活中,会起到怎样的作用和价值?
明曲,即明朝的散曲,通俗的解释,就是一种和民族音乐相结合的长短句歌词。如果说诗、词是属于中世纪士大夫阶层的文化形式,那么明曲,则是属于普通百姓的文化形式,她的受众对象大多是世俗平民,通俗好懂,节奏优美,载歌载舞,贴近心灵,是真正的平民文化的艺术形式,可以说,一代明曲,是四五百年前,中国人的心灵和情怀的一个完整的凝聚,是一面最好的镜子,在帝国朝廷的权力场之下,在精英士大夫的小圈子之外,在封建精英文化之外,存在着受众最为广泛、最有创造力、最富审美创新的平民文化,明曲的思想本质和归宿就是平民文化。
品明曲,就是在亲近明代普通中国人的内心世界,倾听他们的生活叹息、家长里短、爱恨情仇、是非曲直;就是体会他们面对苦难和平庸时的心理调适、乐观知足;从他们对个人命运的抗争、接受、顺应的生命体验里,我们可以汲取生活的智慧,情怀的共鸣,内心的纾解,更重要的是能给今天的人们,一种生活态度,一份生活激励。
在传统学术的视野里,历史分为政治史、经济史、文化史等等,而我则主张要新辟“心灵史”的研究,从人文关怀的角度去反思古代普通人在世俗生活里的心灵感受、价值取向和生活智慧。明曲,因为存世量极其浩大,保存异常完好,全明散曲总共有10000首左右的小令,2000多首的套数,有名有姓的明曲作家有400人,从这些丰富的艺术资料里,我们可以大致地勾勒出明代中国人的生活方式、生活态度和价值观念,这些对现在的人文建设和个体关怀提供了丰沃的历史土壤,有本可依,非常有益。
说到明曲,很多人自然想到“元曲”,其实,我需要澄清的是,通常说的“元曲”是杂剧和散曲的合称。其中,元代杂剧的成就和影响远远超过同时代的散曲,因此,“元曲”这个名称也常常狭义地指“元杂剧”,即“元代戏曲”,而明曲,通常上是专指明代的散曲,元曲和明曲既有艺术的传承之处,明散曲是在元散曲的基础上发展起来的,同时,在散曲方面,明散曲的艺术成就、作者队伍、艺术创造力、影响力和传播力等等方面,都远远超越了元散曲,在艺术价值上,明代散曲应该和唐诗、宋词、元杂剧,以及明清小说,并列为中国传统艺术的象征。
明散曲为何长期以来被忽视,被边缘化,甚至被遗忘呢?首先,散曲在我国各种古典诗歌体裁之中,产生的时间最晚,散曲在元代兴起,在明代全盛,和汉赋、魏晋诗、唐诗、宋词相比,有一种“大器晚成”的印象。其次,散曲艺术以民众为受众,激励人生进取,启蒙真爱和人性,散曲的创作门槛不高,全凭艺术天赋和创造力,因此,散曲不可能被士大夫们所专有,也不可能被某个世俗阶层所垄断,在士大夫阶层看来,他们对散曲“失控”,自然鄙夷丢弃。再次,传统学术忽视对底层平民的“人文关怀”,对人性和个体缺乏足够的重视。以上这些造成了散曲的艺术地位,在各种古典诗歌体裁中最为低下。
这种低下的文化地位,对于明曲,当然是不公平的。我们今天讲传统文化复兴,当然不是封建小圈子的士大夫文化的复苏,而是重新审视传统文化,从中追寻现代人文的关怀和动力,用现代人文思考的视野,来推动平民文化的复苏和兴起。因此,追寻明曲的久远魅力,发现明曲的人文价值,重新反思明曲,是一个不容回避,也是刻不容缓的现代人文的课题。
16世纪前后,正值欧洲的文艺复兴全盛时代。在欧亚大陆的东端,我国正好处于明代中期。欧洲文艺复兴时期的艺术创新和人文关怀,打破了中世纪的黑暗和蒙昧,开启了人文主义和启蒙主义之先河,肯定“人”是现世生活的创造者和享受者,艺术要表现人的思想感情,提倡个性自由,发现生活的价值和意义。这些积极而又伟大的思想意识,同样也在明散曲中一一呈现出来,我们发现,明曲的思想根基和归宿是“人”,强调“人”是追求真、善、美的动力。明曲重视人的价值,激励人们发挥聪明才智,重视挖掘人的创造性的潜力,引导市井百姓关注现世当下的生活,否定虚无缥缈的来世神话或者道德教条。在明曲的熏陶影响下,人们可以率真地追求物质的幸福和满足,洒脱地认为平民奋斗和经营致富,也是道德的行为。明曲的作家们大胆地要求发展个性,反对禁锢人性;在明曲的创作上,他们表达人的感情,反对虚伪和矫揉造作,他们提倡乐观主义的人生态度,求得现世当下的生活愉悦。
如果说,文艺复兴给欧洲带来了人文主义的曙光,那么,我要说这份思想和时代的曙光并不是对西方情有独钟,并没有“忽视”东方,在欧亚大陆的东西两端,人文主义的黎明,在交相辉映。我想,这绝不仅仅是历史时间的巧合,更是,我们这个民族在历史进程中,不断自新、不断进步的一种体现。从思想价值来讲,我只是做了“再现”这个工作,再现一个时代的思想面貌,从而让普通读者能够重新发现历史。
重新发现历史,并不是在知识积累上有所扩展,而是要积极地引导自己的思想意识。现代人文是有温度的,有感情的,有力量的,并不是孔已己的书斋学问。我坚信,荒漠一般的心灵,只会滋生肆无忌惮的贪婪;不懂得爱的心灵,只会催发人性的悲剧;没有敞开,压抑着的人性,对生活和未来的认识,总是那么愤怒,那么孤立,那么狭隘,那么令人悲怜。
品明曲,读明曲,充分珍惜自我的生活,生活在当下,接受个性的残缺,用积极的态度来经营自己的人生,用最坦率和真诚的胸怀来面对自己的命运,明代的中国,是载歌载舞的民族,是率性乐观的生活,求富、求快乐,求名、求满足,贫寒之中有尊严,小富之中有幸福,与生活的失败相处,与命运的悲凉和解,在个人生活和周遭环境之间,在个体荣辱和国家兴衰之间,明曲是一个综合平衡的艺术,是一个浸润着爱和真的艺术。
明曲的研究,和明曲本身一样,长期以来被忽视和冷落,近60年来,明散曲全集仅有一部,明散曲选集也仅有一部,运用现代人文关怀来品读鉴赏明散曲,本书是第一部。我希望用自己的微薄之力,来实实在在地推动明曲研究的进一步复兴。但是本人才学有限,书中难免错讹,敬请广大读者朋友给予批评指正,本人将不胜感激。

裴钰
2009年1月13日

 

Preface to Songs of the Ming Dynasty(英文版前言)

This book studies into the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), which may present answers to people’s doubts such as: What are the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, and what are the typical characteristics?
How to appreciate the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty?
What are the roles and values of non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty in nowadays, especially in an average people’s life?

Ming Sanqu, i.e. non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, is usually employed for singing without makeup or much musical accompanies. The non-dramatic songs of various sources absorbing different tunes and tones from different nationalities manifest itself as being frank and unbridled in style, never limited to one form. Unlike “Shi” and “Ci”, which may more belong to the Scholar-bureaucrat classes, non-dramatic songs were rooted in the folk music. 
Appreciating non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty requires our empathy. It not only brings us one of the finest literatures from the Chinese tradition, but also presents the true feelings, e.g. loving and hating of the common people 4-5 hundred years ago. We can learn how they adjusted themselves when facing miseries, overcame their life difficulties; derive wisdom from their experiences; as well as become more prepared and motivated for our own life.
From the traditional perspective, History can be categorized into disciplines like Political History, Economic History, Cultural History, etc; but I strongly feel that we should also have “Psychic History”, to research into the feelings, values and life wisdoms of the ancient common people, with modern humanistic concern. The well saved non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, with around 10,000 Xiaoling (snatches), more than 2,000 Taoshu (cycles of songs) and around 400 of named writers, provide a valuable opportunity for us to do so. This can be of very great importance in reconstructing the traditional Chinese culture nowadays.

When mentioning songs of the Ming dynasty, i.e. Ming Qu, many people may associate to songs of the Yuan dynasty, i.e. Yuan Qu. But actually, Yuan Qu refers to both the non-dramatic songs and the poetic dramas of the Yuan dynasty; and that is the broad meaning. Because the achievements and influences of the poetic dramas highly exceed that of the non-dramatic songs at that time, the narrative meaning of Yuan Qu may just be the poetic dramas of the Yuan dynasty. On the other hand, Ming Qu, just refers to Ming Sanqu, the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, which were based upon and developed from Yuan Sanqu, the non-dramatic songs of the Yuan dynasty. The achievements, number of writers, creativity, and influences of it, thus were all higher than that of the Yuan dynasty.

You may ask, however, why non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty were always neglected, or even “forgotten” by us? According to me, there are three possible reasons. Firstly, Sanqu (non-dramatic song) was the latest that came into existence out from all the classical poetry literature styles. It was born in the Yuan dynasty, and bloomed in the Ming dynasty, much later than the well-known Han Fu (versed prose of the Han dynasty), Tang Shi (poems of the Tang dynasty), and Song Ci (lyrics of the Song dynasty). Secondly, since it was rooted in the folk music, and was just popular among the common people, its values and importance have not been recognized by other classes within the society. Thirdly, we usually lack humanistic concerns on common people, especially those from the bottom of the pyramid; and haven’t paid enough attention to their personalities and individuality.

It is not fair, that the current status of Ming Qu is inconsistent with, or in other words, far below what it deserves. Reconstructing traditional Chinese culture has become a hot topic in recent years; but we should understand the distinction between the powerful and the powerless. Therefore, it is urgent, and a must, to pay more attention to the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, which stands for culture of the common people.

In the 16th century, while we were at the middle of the Ming dynasty, Europe was in the Renaissance Era. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe, the Renaissance profoundly affected the European intellectual life. It is generally viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. The growing awareness of classical antiquity, and the growing desire to study and imitate nature drove the development toward Renaissance self-awareness, as well as the movement to recover, interpret, and assimilate the language, literature, learning and values of ancient Greece and Rome. The Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and sought for realism and human emotion in art. The genius of man, the unique and extraordinary ability of the human mind were thus asserted. These, to our big and happy surprise, can also be found in the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty in China.

Were you say it was the Renaissance that brought Europe with the light of humanism, which is self-consciously humanist and human-centered, I’d say this was happening in both Western and Eastern world at that same period of time. More importantly, this is not just by chance. It shows that our country has always been renewing and improving. To a large extent, my work is just to remind readers about this, so that we can rediscover the history.

Rediscovering the history does not necessarily mean an increased amount on knowledge accumulation, but a positive change on our mindset and ideology. If we lack humanism and humanistic concerns, we will be unscrupulously greedy. If we don’t understand the value and the art of love, we will be ended in misery. If we are not open, we will be isolated by the rest of the world gradually.

Let us appreciate the songs of the Ming dynasty. Let us appreciate songs from the Ming dynasty. Once we have to accept what we cannot change, we need to change what we can change. Let us have a positive and optimistic mind to accompany us overcoming all the life difficulties. The art of the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty is a balanced one, incorporated into valuable elements of love, and realism. We could learn a lot from it.

The research into the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty, just as the songs themselves, has been neglected for long. In recent 60 years, only one Complete Non-Dramatic Songs of the Ming Dynasty was published. Even, for Selected Non-Dramatic Songs of the Ming Dynasty, the figure is also one. This book is the first amongst all, to appreciate the non-dramatic songs of the Ming dynasty with humanistic concerns. I would like to acknowledge the understanding, help and contributions of those around me; and I would like to see more and more researches and interests into this field.

Songs of the Ming dynasty not only belongs to China, but to the world as well. It is one of the core achievements of art in human civilization, and the most wonderful folk music of China within the recent 500 years. It is a treasure of the world culture, and should be listed among the world intangible heritages to be shared by all humanity.
I am confident that the readers will find this book valuable in terms of its quality and lucid presentation. However, being the first edition, it may contain some inadvertent mistakes and typos. I, hereby, welcome all your comments. Happy reading!

 

PEI Yu
13 January 2009

 

我的各地博客如下:

  “裴钰的人文悦读”博客,集中于文化重建和人文思考等问题

    新浪:http://blog.sina.com.cn/pyu2008

    搜狐:http://wenhuapeiyu.blog.sohu.com

    人民网:http://blog.people.com.cn/blog/s/206519

    环球网:http://blog.huanqiu.com/?uid/54251

    博客中国:http://peiyu.vip.bokee.com/

    乐活中国:http://www.rmloho.com/user5/30432/index.html

  

    “裴钰的情感笔记”博客,集中于心理学和情感等问题
     http://blog.sina.com.cn/peiyu

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